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MORAL    JUDGMENTS    IN    HISTORY

enter imaginatively into this particular case because
Catherine de' Medici was wicked beyond all imagina-
tion ". The most that we can say in this respect is that
either Catherine was wicked beyond any man's imagina-
tion or else we ourselves are deficient in this particular
quality—either one of the two alternatives may be true.
Those who ask themselves which of these two ills of the
world they are going to attack had better set about
remedying that deficiency of imagination which exists
here and now. For Catherine de' Medici, since she is
dead, is out of our hands and after all we are not children
playing with shadows. She can wait till the Judgment
Day.

Some people who wish not merely to condemn
massacre as such (which is always legitimate) but to
dispose of a whole class of human beings at the same time,
attempt to use the case of St. Bartholomew t6 show
that there is an organic connection between Roman
Catholicism and atrocity as such, just as people will
assume that there is an organic connection between a
particular nationality and atrocity, though the nationality
does not remain the same in successive centuries of
history. One of the great needs of the twentieth
century is a scientific study of atrocity and of the moral
issues involved.

It has been rightly pointed out that, while men are
able so often to be indifferent, or only faintly stirred, or
mildly deprecating, when atrocities are committed
against the weak or the poor, the fires of our moral
indignation will burn to a passionate intensity if they are
stoked not merely by our altruism but also by our self-

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